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Waste recovery and processing of non-ferrous metals processing

According to China's industrial classification, iron, manganese, chromium and their alloys are usually referred to as ferrous metals, but other metals are listed as non-ferrous metals. Pure iron and chromium are actually silver and manganese are silver-gray, reason why they are called black metal, because the steel surface is often covered with a layer of black iron oxide, manganese and chromium, and mainly used in smelting alloy steel, so called black metal. This Division was the result of former Soviet textbooks, both logically and from the unscientific nature of things. "Colored" colorless "," black "is not" colored "? Moreover, iron, manganese, chromium itself was not black. Textbooks in America and Europe, the metal is divided into two large categories of ferrous metal and non-ferrous metals, more scientific and precise. However, for ferrous, non-ferrous metals used in our country for a long time, sometimes still use the term.
currently, the world's total production of about 800 million tons of metallic materials, with steel accounting for about 95%, is the subject of metal materials; non-ferrous metals accounting for about 5%, in a supplementary position, but its role is instead of steel materials.
pure metallic state can be applied to many non-ferrous metal industries and in science and technology. Such as Au, Ag, Cu, and Al used as electrical conductors, corrosion resistance of Ti as a component, w, Mo, Ta as temperature fever, Al, SN foil used for food packaging, Hg for gauges, Pb batteries; but more used is the use of a variety of non-ferrous metals or non-ferrous metal alloy.
non-ferrous metal alloy has many important features, both as structural materials and functional materials, in the industrial sector and high-tech fields have a very important role. For example Al, and Mg, and Ti and alloy, due to density small, than strength high, became aviation space industrial indispensable of material, and makes car light quantitative became may; copper has excellent of conductive performance, and cu-Ni-Mn alloy is is excellent of resistance material; Jet engine of high temperature parts without Ni, and co and alloy; zirconium alloy not only as nuclear reactors of important structure pieces, while is exposed Yu seawater in the of hot Exchange device, and antenna array, and sonar through sound cover, resistance corrosion structure material.
in high-tech field in the, non-iron metal alloy or compounds show out more big of development prospects, as can for coal-fired MHD generator channel of metal cathode material w-CU alloy; II times energy development by need of storage oxygen material La-Ni, and Mg-Ni, and Ti-Mn Department alloy; has excellent hard magnetic performance of Nd-Fe-B alloy; has special shape memory effect of Ti-Ni alloy; light records material Gd-Co alloy; high-speed computer, and microwave communications, and Laser technology high in areas such as material GaAs; new superconductor y-BA-CU-o compounds; the next new nickel high temperature structural materials such as alumina or zirconia, titanium and aluminum compounds. Generally speaking, non-ferrous metals in the national economy and the role of modern science and technology can not be measured by the output size, an irreplaceable important role.
non-ferrous metals scrap refers to production and consumption in the process has finished using the life of non-ferrous metals in parts and materials. For example, old wires, old, old appliances, scrapping of old aircraft, automobiles, ships, etc, all contain a number of non-ferrous metals.
in some developed countries, non-ferrous metal production mainly relies on renewable resources, recycling nonferrous metals industrial has become an independent industry. 2012 world production of secondary aluminum and alloy 8.16 million tonnes, accounting for 33% of primary aluminum production, in which the United States 93%, France 59%, Germany 89%, Japan recycled aluminum production primary aluminum 186 times. World regeneration lead occupy "half", history Shang 1999 World fine lead total for 6.218 million tons which regeneration lead production for 3.273 million tons, accounted for fine lead total of 52.63%; United States is world Shang maximum of regeneration lead producer, regeneration lead in fine lead total in the of share from 1990 of 66.8% rose to 1999 of 75.8%, Germany, and France, and Italy, and Japan, and United Kingdom regeneration lead production proportion are over 50% ; France 80% from scrap copper recycling copper production raw materials each year. Compared with this, China's non-ferrous metal recycling industry there are still large gaps in many varieties.
at the same time, recycle used non-ferrous metals are also effective means to save energy and reduce environmental pollution. To aluminum for cases, and to ore for beginning compared, production 1T original aluminum needed energy 213l0.8xl04kJ (1.7x104kw.h electric), and production 1T regeneration aluminum energy only for 548.8x104kJ, only original health aluminum of 2.6%, and save 10.5T water, less with solid material 11t, than with hydropower production electrolytic aluminum Shi less emissions CO291%, than with coal electric Shi reduced of CO2 emissions volume is more; addition, Emissions of sulfur oxides (SOX) 0.06t, less waste, waste 1.9t, minimal stripping TOPSOIL stone 0.6T mining gangue-free 6.1T. Similarly, copper, lead, zinc metal recycling of energy and 82%, and 63% respectively, precious metals such as gold, silver, Platinum and nickel, chromium, titanium, niobium, cobalt and other rare metals recycling metals and energy saving rate of around 60%~90%.
to learn the advanced experience to explore suitable waste recovery and utilization of non-ferrous metals technology, to support and promote the sustainable development of our country will have a very important significance and strategic importance.

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